Repository of functional regulatory elements

This page contains collections of regulatory regions gathered from the literature. Set 1 is trimmed to represent the smallest functional unit. Set 1 was used as the dataset for
Distinguishing Regulatory DNA From Neutral Sites
Laura Elnitski, Ross C. Hardison, Jia Li, Shan Yang, Diana Kolbe,
Pallavi Eswara, Michael J. O'Connor, Scott Schwartz, Webb Miller, and Francesca Chiaromonte
Genome Res. 2003;13: 64-72
Please see The GALA database for the most current coordinates of the regulatory set.
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or the downloads page:
hg16 link

Regulatory Set 1

This set of known regulatory regions is limited to the smallest recognized segment containing full function.

Further information on past releases

Click here to see them as Human Genome Browser Custom Tracks displayed by chromosome.

Regulatory Set 2: As of June 2002

This list of functional regions contains names and coordinates of an additional set of regulatory regions that have not been trimmed to show the smallest possible functional element with maximum activity. They range in size from 300-4000 bp. Updates will be posted when available.

Set 2 has not been trimmed.

Full information and sequences from set 1 are shown below:

This site contains a collection of experimentally determined regulatory regions found in human genes. It is divided into several collections based on the source of the information. These sequences represent the largest region prior to the trimming described above .
Regulatory Sites from GenBank
A collection of 43 regulatory elements. Most of these sequences are defined in the literature as promoter elements with one or more recognized transcription factor binding sites. A few entries are from enhancers and intronic regulatory elements. supplied by Manolis Dermitzakis

Liver Specific Regulatory Sequences

A second data set contains sequences known to direct liver specific transcription.
supplied by William Krivan

Pairwise alignments with Annotation of Regulatory Elements

A third data set contains annotations for alignments between finished human and mouse sequences that were posted as part of the eight test regions selected by the homolgy group for analysis in August, 2001.

Human Globin gene promoters and regulatory elements

Annotations of the globin gene promoters are provided by Ross Hardison.

The CFTR promoter

Annotations of the regulatory elements in the CFTR promoter are based on the literature.

Muscle Specific Regulatory Regions

The collection of muscle specific regulatory elements defined in
Wasserman WW, Fickett JW.
Identification of regulatory regions which confer muscle-specific gene expression.
J Mol Biol. 1998 Apr 24;278(1):167-81.

please direct comments or questions to Laura Elnitski at

Jan 17,2003

Data made available by Laura Elnitski, Webb Miller, Ross Hardison, Scott Schwartz, Emmanouil Dermitzakis, Andrew Clark, William Krivan and Wyeth Wasserman